SULLIVAN. was formed from Cazenovia, February 22, 1803, and named from Gen. John Sullivan, of Revolutionary fame. The larger east half was set off to form the town of Lenox, March 3, 1809. It is the north-west corner town of the county, and is bounded on the north by Oneida lake, on the south by Cazenovia and Fenner, on the east by Lenox and on the west by Cicero and Manlius. The surface in the larger northern part is level and in the south part, hilly. The Cowassalon swamp extends across the north part of the town, and is bordered on the south by the Vlaie, or natural meadow, which is covered to the depth of several feet with muck, underlaid by marl, and though destitute of timber, supports a rank growth of grass, ferns and weeds, which have to some extent been supplanted by cultivated grasses. Two series of vertical stumps, one near the surface and a larger one three feet below it, indicate that two forests have existed upon this extensive morass, which, once inundated, has been partially drained by means of an artificial ditch cut through the ridge which intervenes between it and the lake. This ditch forms the channel of the Cowassalon and Canaseraga creeks, which unite in this town in the central part of the swamp, the latter stream having been diverted thereby from its natural channel. This improvement, which reclaimed several thousand acres of waste land and improved the cultivation of other extensive tracts, was projected under State patronage, and by, an Act of the Legislature 8,400 acres were made to contribute towards defraying the cost by the imposition of a tax of two dollars per acre. The Cowassalon enters the town from Lenox north of the center of the east border; while the Canaseraga enters it in the south-east corner, and forms at Perryville a beautiful cascade of about 150 feet in height. Chittenango creek is the most important stream, both in volume and hydraulic importance. It enters the town near the center of the south border, flows through the south-west part, and forms in its lower course the northerly and larger half of the west border of the town. It furnishes in its course through the town numerous valuable mill sites.

    Geologically considered, the town is an important one. The value of its mineral products is not surpassed by any town in the county. The low lands which form the north and greater extent of its surface are underlaid by the rocks of the Clinton, Niagara and Onondaga groups, the former characterized by its iron ores and the latter by its rich deposits of gypsum; while the high lands in the south part are underlaid by limestone rocks which yield abundantly both common and water lime. Marl and peat abound in the swampy regions. The early discovery of its mineral resources had an important bearing on the subsequent development of the industries of the town. Gypsum was first discovered about the beginning of the century, (soon after its discovery in Onondaga county, and about contemporaneously with its discovery in Cayuga county,) by Jacob Patrick, on the farm now owned by John Lillie, about three-fourths of a mile east of Chittenango, and was first brought extensively to public notice and developed commercial importance during the war of 1812 and the embargo preceding it, when Nova Scotia plaster was excluded from the markets of the country.1 Thousands of tons of gypsum were quarried in this locality, most extensively on the farm of Capt. Timothy Brown, at Canaseraga, Mr. Brown having been instrumental in forming the company who were engaged in plaster quarrying.

    Water lime was first discovered on the old Ira Moyer farm, which was afterwards owned by Col. Hezekiah Sage, and at present by Charles Button and Franklin Walrath, located about a mile south-west of Chittenango. Its discovery was accidental and is said to have been the first discovered in the State, though the same claim is made for Onondaga county. Both date from the construction of the Erie canal, and were due to the necessities of the contractors upon that work, the masonry for which was contracted to be done with common lime, in consequence of the expensiveness of hydraulic cement. Mason Harris and Thomas Livingston, of the town, entered into a contract to furnish a quantity for the middle section, and found to their surprise that the product of the quarries opened for that purpose in this town would not slack when burned. It was examined by Canvass White and Judge Wright, two engineers who interested themselves in the matter, and was submitted for examination and experiment to Dr. Barton, a scientific gentlemen of Herkimer, who broke a quantity in the trip-hammer shop of J. B. Yates of Chittenango, burned it, pulverized it in a mortar, and after mixing it with sand, rolled a ball and placed it in water, where it remained during the night. In the morning it was set solid enough to be rolled across the floor, and was pronounced equal to the best Roman cement.2 The discovery was opportune and valuable and proved of vast importance in furthering the permanent structures on the Erie canal. Large quantities of quick and water limestone were subsequently quarried in the locality of its first discovery, and the remains of many kilns still remain on that farm. But the Manlius quarries being more accessible and better facilities being enjoyed by that town for the manufacture of lime, have resulted in a large diminution in its manufacture in Sullivan.

    The mineral springs of Sullivan are of no inconsiderable importance and have been previously noticed.3 The most important of these are the Chittenango White Sulphur Springs, located four miles south of Chittenango Station on the New York Central Railroad, and two miles south of Chittenango village, from both of which it is accessible by an excellent macadamized road. The first efforts to bring these valuable springs to public notice were made in 1825 or '6, by Peter Colyer, who purchased the land on which they are situated, from a man named Diefendorf, by whom it was first taken up, and opened a wagon road to them; and by Milton Leach, who kept a grocery and opened a shower bath. Mr. Colyer soon after erected a building for the accommodation of visitors. The property has since been variously improved by its different owners, and has for many years been a favorite resort for those seeking recreation or benefit from the curative properties of its waters, which are highly esteemed for the cure of certain diseases. The spacious hotel and family cottages are located in a beautiful grove, through which flows Chittenango creek, and are at present under the supervision of Josiah Tasker, who has established a reputation as a first-class caterer.

    The soil in the north part of the town is a clayey loam, alternating with muck and marl, and in the south it is a gravelly loam, well adapting it to mixed farming. This town like Lenox and Stockbridge produces good crops of wheat, and this cereal is largely raised. Hops are successfully raised, but far less extensively than in many of the other towns of the county. It also takes a high rank in the value of its dairy products, though dairying is not a specialty.

    The New York Central Railroad extends through the central part of the town from east to west, and the Erie canal in the same general direction to the south of it, but in a more circuitous course. The Utica, Ithaca and Elmira Railroad (Cazenovia and Canastota,) crosses the south-east corner of the town and has a station within its borders at Perryville.

    The population of the town in 1875, was 4,745;4 of whom 4,165 were native, 580 foreign, 4,703 white, 42 colored, 2,386 males and 2,359 females. Its area was 46,287 acres; of which 30,656 acres were improved, 7,522 woodland, and 8,109 otherwise unimproved, more than doubling in this latter respect any other town in the county. The cash value of farms was $2,783,472; of farm buildings other than dwellings, $344,819; of stock, $337,831; of tools and implements, $101,585; the amount of gross sales from farms in 1874 was $274,798.

    There are nineteen common and one union school districts in the town. During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, there were twenty-eight licensed teachers at one time during twenty-eight weeks or more. The number of children of school age residing in the districts at that date was 1,592. During that year there were fifteen male and twenty-nine female teachers employed; the number of children residing in the districts who attended school was 1,168, residing in other districts, 94; the average daily attendance during the year was 632.514; the number of volumes in district libraries was 1,546, the value of which was $814; the number of school-houses was twenty, all frame, which, with the sites embracing 3 acres and 130 rods, valued at $2,850, were valued at $24,150; the assessed value of taxable property in the districts was $2,171, 210.

    Receipts and disbursements for school purposes:---
Amount on hand Oct. 1, 1878$    318.83
Amount apportioned to districts3,540.93
Raised by tax5,161.04
From other sources679.97

Total receipts$9,700.77

Paid for teachers' wages$7,759.11
    "    libraries152.87
    "    school apparatus32.58
    "    school-houses, fences, sites, out-
          houses, repairs, furniture, etc
    "   incidental expenses852.52
Amount remaining on hand Sept. 30, 1879408.74

Total disbursements$9,700.77

    SETTLEMENTS.---In the settlement of the town of Sullivan we are able to trace an intimate connection between its pioneers and the stirring scenes of the Revolution, some of which, though of minor importance, were enacted on its soil, and were the precursors of that immigration which brought to it its first little band of pioneers soon after the close of that eventful struggle. In the fall of 1780 Sir John Johnson, meditating retaliation for General Sullivan's successful invasion of the Iroquois' country the previous year by a blow upon the border settlements of the Mohawk Valley, gathered at La Chine, an island in the St. Lawrence, a motley force of some eight hundred tones, Canadians and Indians, the latter under the leadership of the trusty Brant, with which, on the 15th of October, he made a descent upon and laid waste the Schoharie Valley, up which he marched, burning houses, destroying property, and murdering or taking prisoners all whom he met. General Robert Van Rensselaer, of Claverack, hastily gathered the militia and marched to repel the invaders, who fled before his advance to their boats, which, with their provisions and other stores, were left under a strong guard in a stockade fort previously constructed by the French on the east bank of Chittenango Creek, about a mile above the mouth of Black Creek. Van Rensselaer pursued the retreating foe to Herkimer, and from there dispatched a messenger to Fort Stanwix, directing Captain Walter Vrooman to proceed with a strong detachment to Chittenango Creek and destroy the boats and stores left there. Captain Vrooman accomplished this mission, but his command, numbering fifty men, were surprised on the 23d of October, while at dinner, by a detachment of Colonel John Butler's rangers, who were sent to intercept them by Sir John Johnson, who had been apprised of this intention. Of Vrooman's party all except two were killed or captured, and the Indians, exasperated with the loss of their boats and stores, revenged themselves by torturing to death some of their captives, while the sunken boats were being raised preparatory to resuming the retreat.

    Captain Vrooman and those of his party who survived this brutal butchery were taken prisoners to Montreal and held in captivity for two years. But their long imprisonment and the years spent after their release in their homes on the Mohawk did not obliterate the recollection of the fertile lands in northern Sullivan. In 1790 ten of these captives, with their families, squatted on the Canaseraga flats, on adjoining farms; but as these were a part of the reservation of the Oneidas, who, from the ungenerous treatment received at the hands of some of their European neighbors, had become distrustful of the large numbers who were Seeking western homes, they were ejected the following year on complaint Of the Oneidas, by order of Governor George Clinton, who entrusted this mission to Colonel William Colbraith, then high sheriff of Herkimer county. Their dwellings, from which their effects had been removed to a safe distance, were burned to the ground. Guerdon Evans, a local author of some note, thus eloquently describes the generous conduct of these noble red men, who were not unmoved by the sad countenances of their unwelcome neighbors as they contemplated this act of punitive justice. He says:---

    "The dream of a permanent home vanished; the hardy pioneers, homeless and houseless, were yet indomitable. Sullenly they watched the smoke driving away from their tottering roofs; the Indians gathered around in quiet groups with hearts more full of sorrow for the white man than joy for justice secured them by righteous laws. They proved that the savage breast enshrined virtues and principles not inferior to their white brothers. Their triumph was complete and tempered by acts worthy of record. They led the discomfitted settlers to the grounds near which the pleasant village of Chittenango is rising into importance, and granted to them under proper arrangements abundant space for settlements. Cabins were soon erected, hunting and fishing supplied their wants until the earth could yield its abundant stores."

    The settlement of the town though commenced at an early day was not rapid and general, as it could not be permanent until the extinguishment of the Indian title. The Indians yielded their landed possessions in the town by small parcels and at various times, the last claim being relinquished not until about 1830; consequently much of the town remained an almost unbroken wilderness till a comparatively late date, as the primal object of the pioneer was generally to secure a permanent home, an object which could not always be subordinated to other attractions and advantages. The southern and central parts of the town were settled many years earlier than the more northern parts.

    The ten squatters to whom allusion has been made were James and Joseph Pickard, Jacob, David and Hon Yost Schuyler, Jacob Seeber, Garrett and George VanSlycke, John Paisley and John Freemyer, most of whom became permanent settlers. The Pickards settled in the east part of the town. Jacob Schuyler settled about a mile above Chittenango, on the widow Isaac Garlock farm, and continued to reside there till his death. He kept the first tavern in the town kept by a white man, though a tavern had been previously kept by an Indian named John Denny, at Canaseraga, where he also, built the first frame house in 1800. His youngest son, Barney, died here four or five years ago. His other sons were John J., David, Philip and James, all of whom are dead. Jacob Schuyler, a carpenter and joiner of Canaseraga, is a son of John J. Schuyler. Peggy Schuyler, who was born in 1791, was the first white child born in town. Jacob Seeber, then a captain and afterwards a general of militia, subsequently removed to and died at Clockville. He was a man of prominence and influence. John Seeber, a lawyer at Clockville, was a son of his. Garrett VanSlycke lived near Poole's Brook, near the line of Manlius. John and Peter Christman, George Chawgo and the Herrings, Dutchmen from the Mohawk country, were other pioneers in that locality, which was known as Kinderhook, from the fact that the children of the neighborhood were accustomed to assemble on the green at the corners to play. The Christmans and Herrings sold out and moved away to the locality of Sandy Creek. The descendants of the Chawgos still live there.

    These first pioneers were soon after joined by many others, among whom were John G. Moyer, Captain Timothy Brown, Colonel Zebulon Douglass, John Matthews, Philip Daharsh, Peter Dygart, Timothy Freeman, Martin Vrooman, Captain Rosel Barnes, ____ Rector, Robert Carter, ____ Owens, Joseph and Benjamin Hosley, Jacob Patrick, Judge John Knowles, John Adams, Robert Riddell, John Smith, John Walrath, the Beebes, John Lower, Peter Ehle, David Burton, William Miles, John Keller, Ovid Weldon, Nicholas Pickard, John Owen French, Rev. Austin Briggs and Reuben Haight.

    John G. Moyer built a grist-mill and saw-mill on the site of the paper-mill a mile and a half above Chittenango. These were the first mills in the town. The grist-mill was converted into a plaster-mill as early as 1814, and later was fitted up in part for clothing works by John Knowles, Jr. A year or two later, about 1826, it was burned, and was rebuilt by Knowles for clothing works.

    Captain Timothy Brown was left when a child, by his parents, from Williamsburg, Mass., while on their way to the western country, with a family who had settled in Sullivan. In 1819 he purchased the farm of Albert Queenall at Canaseraga, which is now owned by Timothy S., John, Barton and Albert Brown, grandsons of Captain Timothy Brown. Queenall was a Hollander from the Mohawk country, and on selling to Brown went to Ohio. Captain Brown was an energetic and influential man. He was a stockholder in the Seneca turnpike, an enterprise with which he was for many years connected, a contractor on the Erie canal, and an active and enterprising farmer. He invested all his surplus funds in lands and became an extensive landholder. He continued his residence here till his death. His children were Solomon, William, John, Hiram, and two daughters, the oldest of whom married a Drake, and the other, Anson Pearson. All settled on their father's lands in that vicinity, but all are dead.

    Col. Zebulon Douglass came from Columbia county in 1796, and settled on the Seneca turnpike two and one-half miles east of Chittenango, where his grandson, Douglass Lewis, now lives. He brought in his family the following year and resided there till his death. He was widely and favorably known, and rose in the militia to the rank of colonel. By subsequent additions to his original purchase he acquired a large and valuable farm. The widow Lewis, mother of Douglass Lewis, is a daughter of his and is living in the town with one of her daughters.

    John Matthews was from Massachusetts, and settled about a half mile south of Bolivar to which his farm extended. About 1810 he purchased the grist and saw-mills long known as Matthews' Mills, and located on Chittenango Creek a little north of the center of the town. He operated these till about 1822 or '23, when they passed into the hands of his brother Samuel, of Salina. The mills were burned several years ago. Mr. Matthews died and was buried in the locality of his settlement. He was twice married. His children by his first wife were John, David, Henry, James, Samuel, Margaret, who married a Ball, and by his second wife, Joseph. They married and settled in this locality. Samuel afterwards lived in Syracuse and acquired some prominence in public life.

    Philip Daharsh settled at Bolivar and died there. He had a son named Philip, who also settled in that locality. He raised a numerous family, but none of them are left here. Peter Dygart married a daughter of Jacob Schuyler and settled in the same locality as he. He raised a family there, but none of them are left. Timothy Freeman and Martin Vrooman, the latter a kinsman of Captain Walter Vrooman, before referred to, settled on the old Seneca turnpike, the former about two miles south-west of Chittenango, and the latter between two and three miles east of that village. Bradford Freeman, who raised a large family, and Charles Freeman, who lived on the homestead were sons of Timothy Freeman. Vrooman removed from the town at quite an early day.

    Captain Rosel Barnes was the first settler in the vicinity of Bridgeport. He built there the first frame house, having previously kept tavern in a log one. He afterwards removed to Illinois. Leverett Barnes was a son of his, and lived on the homestead. He also went west many years ago. Other early settlers in this locality were Captain Rector, a militia officer, who resided at Bridgeport till his death. Robert Carter and his sons, Robert and John, the latter of whom was a well-to-do farmer; and Joseph and Benjamin Hosley, brothers, the former of whom went west many years ago. Benjamin Hosley raised a large family in that locality.

    Gideon Owens settled on the lake shore, a little east of Bridgeport, on the point which perpetuates his name. Jacob Patrick settled previous to 1800 on the Seneca turnpike, about three-fourths of a mile east of Chittenango, on what is still known as the old Patrick farm, and is now occupied by John Lillie. On this farm was discovered the first gypsum found in the county. Patrick had a large family of children, who went west. Judge John Knowles, who had followed the sea in his early life, came from Troy in 1805 and settled on the plains about two miles south of Bridgeport. He was a prominent man and held various town offices, among them that of Justice. He was an Associate Judge' of Madison county, a member from this county of the Constitutional Convention of 1821, and a Member of Assembly in 1828. He had a large family, of whom a son--Isaac--and a daughter--Lucy, who married a Scriba, are living, the latter in Waterloo, Seneca county, and the former till recently north of that place. John Adams came from Troy previous to Judge Knowles and settled a mile and a half to two miles south of Bridgeport. He afterwards located at Matthews' Mills and died there. He was one of the earliest surveyors in that locality and a very respectable farmer.

    John Smith, from Massachusetts, settled about 1800, at Chittenango, and kept tavern on the turnpike, just south of the creek, on the land now owned and occupied by George Walrath. The tavern stood a little in rear of Walrath's residence, and was kept for several years by Smith, who continued to reside there till his death. He it was who first took up the 200 acres in Chittenango village, including the water-power now utilized by the grist-mill and cotton factory. About 1812, he made an arrangement with Judge Jedediah Sanger and Judge Youngs, of Oneida county, whereby he agreed to give them one-half that land on condition of their paying for the whole. As Smith was a bankrupt the deed was made in the name of his brother Jonathan, who lived at New Woodstock. His family left here many years ago. Judges Sanger and Youngs built the village mills soon after this agreement was entered into.

    Reuben Haight came from Connecticut about 1800 and settled about a mile north of Chittenango. He removed to Monroe, Michigan, with his family about 1835. His son John and two daughters--Amy, who married John Campbell, now living in Syracuse, and Olivia, who married John Denny, and is living in Oneida--remained here.

    Robert Riddell came from Shelburne, Mass., in 1805, and settled on the Chittenango about a mile below Bolivar, on the farm now occupied in part, including the homestead, by Calvin Prosser, and died there in August, 1808. His children were Polly, who married Frederick Pratt, Sally, who married Uriah Aldrich, Jemima, who married Heman Wilson, Patty, who married James Matthews, Susannah, who died in childhood, Robert, David and Thompson, of whom David, who was born in 1794, is the only one living. The family remained on the homestead till 1811, when they dispersed. Robert and David are the only ones who remained here. They were for many years engaged in company in the business of tanning, currying and shoe making. Robert died here in 1861.

    At this time, (1805,) says David Riddell, Chittenango consisted of two taverns, one kept by John Smith and the other, the present Yates House, by Ball & Cary, and two or three houses. Canaseraga was then the village of the town, and had two stores, one kept by Reuben & Hawley, (the latter the father of Gen. J. Dean Hawley, a prominent jeweler in Syracuse,) and the other by William Malcolm, who were probably the first merchants at that place.

    John Owen French came from Williamsburgh, Mass., in 1805 and settled between Canaseraga and Chittenango, where he died in 1808, aged 39. His sons Horatio, Jairus, Samuel and Thomas, natives of Williamsburgh, came with their father and afterwards took up contiguous farms in the same locality. They became highly respected citizens and filled various positions of honor and trust. Samuel was elected sheriff in 1843. He was born July 15, 1798; and died here June 16, 1868. Horatio died Nov. 19, 1862, aged 72; and Thomas, Feb. 5, 1879, aged 75. David Burton settled in Canaseraga the following year, 1806.

    John H. Walrath, a native of Minden, Montgomery county, came here from Rome, in 1808, having contracted to construct a section of the Seneca turnpike in this locality. He remained during the winter in Chittenango locating on the hill road to Canaseraga, and the following spring removed to a farm on the west bank of Chittenango creek, where the foundry and machine shop is located, and resided there till his death Sept. 16, 1816, aged 47. He had been a man of standing and influence in Minden, and his family have been among the worthiest of Sullivan's citizens. His children were Henry I., John I., who was a member of Assembly from this town in 1845, was born Sept. 1, 1789, and died July 31, 1865, Abraham, who died Oct. 9, 1831, aged 39, Daniel, who died Aug. 4, 1856, aged 61, Frederick, Mary, who married Christian Fink, and Elizabeth, who married Jacob Colyer. The daughters only survive, and both are living in Chittenango.

    David and Joseph Beebe settled at Canaseraga. They were from the Eastern States, and were a family of prominence and influence. They and their children mostly settled and died in that locality; but none of them are left here. John Lower settled one and one-fourth miles west of Chittenango, on the Salt Springs road, on the farm now occupied by Andrew Anguish. He died there at an early day. His son Richard was the pioneer blacksmith of Chittenango, and carried on blacksmithing in a shop which stood on the site of the residence of Archibald Ricard. He was succeeded in the business by his son Jacob. George and Conrad, other sons of John Lower, were farmers and afterwards located in Manlius.

    Peter Ehle was a Revolutionary soldier from Montgomery county and located in the south-west part of the town, where his great-grandson, George Ehle, now lives. He died on that farm and was succeeded on it by his son Henry, who was born April 13, 1787, and afterwards removed to the village of Chittenango and died there March 29, 1870. Oliver Ehle, son of Henry, succeeded to and died on the farm June 20, 1862, aged 37, and was succeeded by his son George, the present occupant. John P., the oldest of Peter Ehle's sons, settled and died on a farm adjoining his father's. Peter P., another son, settled first in the same locality, in the edge of Cazenovia, but afterwards removed to Fenner, where he died Sept. 16, 1847, aged 68, and Hannah, his wife, Jan. 28, 1852, at the same age. George, another son, kept tavern for many years in what is now the Dixon House in Chittenango. Rev. Austin Briggs, a Methodist preacher from Connecticut, settled about the opening of the war of 1812 on a soldier's right in Manlius; but his title proving defective he soon after removed to the lake shore in this town. He was the pioneer preacher in this town. Families named White, Eastwood, Crownhart and Dunham were among the early settlers. The Eastwoods settled between Bridgeport and Lakeport. Dunham was a Justice and clothier.

    We quote from H. Child's Gazetteer and Directory of Madison County the following interesting passage in the early history of the north part of the town:---

    "Barrels were manufactured [at Bridgeport] at an early day, taken down Chittenango creek, through Oneida lake and Three River Point, thence to Salina, where they were exchanged for salt. Utica was the nearest market place, and thither the settlers were compelled to go for their supplies, making the journey without roads, guided only by marked trees. On ac-count of the swampy condition of the land in this vicinity, it was not settled as early as the higher lands further south. One of the early settlers, who soon removed to a more congenial clime, thought they were 'robbing the wild beasts of their rights,' as he did not 'believe the Almighty ever designed it should be inhabited by human beings.' Fine fertile farms and convenient dwellings now occupy this region, then so unpromising. Mr. Robert Carter was one of the early settlers in this vicinity. At one time he started on foot for Manlius, carrying in a sack a fine salmon which he designed as a present to Esquire Kinney. On his way he saw in the path before him two cubs, and thinking to frighten them by vociferously shouting, he rushed forward, when to his surprise he found he had aroused the old bear, and to escape her wrath, he dropped his salmon and climbed the nearest tree, one so small that the bear could not climb, and so smooth that he was compelled to hang on by main strength. The cubs had taken to other trees, and the old bear took her station at the foot of the tree which Mr. Carter had climbed, and there guarded most vigilantly her prisoner. For five long hours he maintained his position, until at length the cubs, leaving their retreat, came down, and they with their mother jogged slowly away, leaving Mr. Carter to resume his journey.

    "Mrs. Cuppenoll, an aged lady living at Bridgeport, and daughter of Mr. Carter, relates that when she was first married, her husband used to 'change work' with a friend at a distance, leaving her alone, sometimes for a week. On one occasion, before he left home she prepared for their supper a dish of 'thickened milk.' It being late she deferred washing the kettle, but filling it with water, set it outside her cabin door and retired. This door was only a `rag rug' hung up temporarily. During the night she heard what she supposed to be the fighting and scrambling of dogs over her kettle, and only wondering where they all came from, she gave herself no further trouble and went to sleep. Early in the morning she was awakened by the hallooing of her nearest neighbor, who having heard the howling of a pack of wolves near her dwelling in the night, and knowing the frail character of her door, fully expected to find she had been devoured by the ravenous beasts. Her kettle was licked clean, but no damage was done. Afterwards, until her husband's return, she slept in the loft.

* * * * * * * * *

    "At Owen's Point are several Indian mounds, supposed to contain the remains of Oneida chiefs. Near them stands a large beech tree, hollow and open on one side, from which it is said the skeleton of an Indian was once taken."

    TOWN OFFICERS.---The early town records have not been preserved; hence we are unable to give the customary list of town officers. The following are the town officers in 1880:---

    Supervisor---Francis H. Gates.
    Clerk---Lyman Gay.
    Justices---Francis W. Stillman, Jr., J. Gould Jennings, E. C. Green, Peter I. Koons.5
    Assessors---Richard Brown, E. A. Judd, James Ryan.
    Commissioner of Highways---William R. Spencer.
    Overseers of the Poor---John Lillie, Albert Campbell.
    Collector---Franklin Hosley.
    Constables---George F. Marshall, George C. Russell, Harrison H. Hamilton, Dewitt Wager, John C. Hoff.
    Game Constable---Edwin Jacobs.
    Commissioners of Excise---James O. Shetler, Alonzo Bishop, Irvin Klock.
    Inspectors of Election :---
       District No. 1---Emery B. Maxon, Richard R. Walrath, Edward F. Colyer.
       District No. 2---Miles Beach, Herbert E. Brazee, Samuel H. Clark.
       District No. 3---Lurell G. Servis, William R. Olcott, Webster Billington.
       District No. 4---Seymour Chapman, Edward Sternberg, John Willie Phillips.
       District No. 5---Samuel J. Harris, Menzo Ausman, Edward L. Dewey.


    Chittenango occupies a romantic situation among the steep hills which contract the valley of Chittenango creek in the southern part of the town, and enjoys the advantages of an excellent water power furnished by that stream, which flows north through the central part of the village. It is about two miles south of the station of the same name on the New York Central Railroad, with which it is connected by stage. It contains five churches, (Reformed, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, Episcopal and Catholic,) a Union school, a newspaper office, (The Madison County Times,) two hotels, (the Yates House, kept by A. J. Wright, and the Dixon House, kept by Abner P. Bellinger,) a bank, (the First National Bank of Chittenango,) a cotton factory, two paper-mills, a grist-mill, a foundry and machine shop, four dry goods stores, two groceries, two drug stores, two shoe stores, two hardware stores, one clothing store, one furniture store, one jewelry store, two millinery stores, two blacksmith shops, (George Walrath and P. P. Carl,) two wagon shops, (George Adams and A. Youngs,) a barber shop, (C. C. Grimshaw,) two meat markets, (C. Cook and Siver & Lamphere,) and a population of 954.6

    The village was incorporated March 15, 1842.7 The first corporation meeting was held at the house of Harley Judd, Tuesday, April 19, 1842, and the following named officers were elected: Robert Riddell, Alfred Bellamy, Daniel Walrath, George K. Fuller and James Crouse, Trustees; Abner P. Downer, Edward Sims and Hiram Curtis, Assessors; George Grant, Treasurer; Henry H. Cobb, Clerk; Oren A. Thompson,8 Collector; Daniel F. Kellogg, Joseph B. Plank and Alonzo Bishop, Fire Wardens. At a meeting of the trustees April 27, 1842, Robert Riddell was elected President.

    Following are the village officers of 1880:---
    President---John H. Walrath.
    Trustees---P. P. Carl, Lyman Gay and E. A. Judd.
    Clerk---B. R. Jenkins.
    Treasurer---R. R. Walrath.
    Collector---L. D. Abbott.
    Street Commissioner---C. M. Vickerman.
    Police Constables---G. F. Marshall, John Hannon.
    Sexton of Cemeteries and Special Policeman---H. Dutcher.
    Fire Warden---G. E. Donahue.
    Pound Master---E. Ehle.
    Lamp Lighter---J. Suits.
    Board of Health---Drs. J. R. Eaton, S. D. Hanchett, W. E. Deuel.

    The following have been the Presidents and Clerks of the village from its incorporation to the present time, except for a period of twelve years between 1858 and 1870, when no records were preserved.

1842.Robert Riddell.Henry H. Cobb.
1843.Abner P. Downer.James Walrath.
1844.Job Wells.Chauncey Shaffer.
1845.Jarvis French.John Bates.
1846.George Grant.Isaac T. Teller.
1847-'8.John G.
1849.Job Wells.Daniel D. Walrath.
1850.George K. Fuller.John C. Clark.
1852.P. D. Harrington.J. P. Olmstead.
1853.William E. Lansing.George E. Downer.
1854.George K.
1855.Sanford Cobb.Charles C. West.
1856-' P. Carl. D. Walrath.
1871.J. S. Atwell.J. J. L. Baker.
1872-'5.A. H. Downer.T. E. Hitchcock.
1876-' R. Jenkins.
1880.John H.

    MERCHANTS.---The first merchant at Chittenango was Joseph Sanger, who came here from the East about 1812, and established himself in trade. He also had an ashery, and drove cattle to market. The building in which he traded is still standing on Seneca street. It is the second building south of the creek bridge on that street, and the building next south of the residence of Mrs. Daniel F. Kellogg. It has been unoccupied many years and is now in a dilapidated condition. He continued in trade till near his death, about 1850, but in a very small way during the latter years of his life. His ashery was in the lane back of the post-office, at the foot of the hill, on the site of the cooper shop lately occupied by Charles Reynolds. He died at an advanced age and left only one child, Zedekiah, a bachelor, who still owns his father's property in Sullivan, but lives mostly in Oneida county. He is well known through this section of country from his varied and extensive business transactions through which he has accumulated a large property. Moses Parmelee, from Cazenovia, was contemporary with Sanger and commenced trading about the same time. His store was the building next south of Sanger's, and is now occupied as a dwelling. He died March 5, 1860, aged 70.

    In the spring of 1816, John B. Yates, who during his day was most emphatically Sullivan's most representative man, appeared upon the scene of her industries, which, under the stimulus of his energy and genius, developed into enterprises of magnitude and importance. He established himself in mercantile business on the site of the late residence of Mr. Throop, nearly opposite the union school building, on the road to Manlius Square, and afterwards continued it in the present post-office building which he erected. He was for many years the leading business man in Chittenango--the power which animated its varied industries, and kept in motion the wheels of its manufactories, sometimes at a large personal sacrifice. His energies were not confined to merchandizing, but were also directed to the development of the manufacturing interests of the village and the mineral resources of the town. In 1818, he built a plaster-mill, adjoining the village grist-mill, which he acquired on his advent to the village, and soon after the discovery of water-lime he became extensively engaged in its manufacture. He mainly built the lateral canal connecting Chittenango with the Erie canal, but that since his death has lapsed into disuse, and there is little now to remind the stranger that it ever existed. He also ran a line of packets for a short time between Chittenango and Utica. Mr. Yates' death put a quietus on many of Chittenango's industries, or left them in a languishing condition from which they never fully recuperated. He also acquired a large landed estate in the vicinity of Chittenango.

    John B. Yates was a native of Schenectady and was graduated from Union College in 1802 at the age of eighteen years. He read law with his brother, Hon. Henry Yates, and was admitted to the bar in 1805. He practiced his profession till 1812, when, having been commissioned a Captain by Gov. Tompkins, he raised a volunteer artillery company and participated in the disastrous winter campaign of 1813 on the northern border of this State. He was elected to Congress while residing at Schenectady, serving from 1815 to 1817. The latter year he was appointed to supervise the State lotteries for the promotion of literature and distinguished himself by their efficient and successful management. In 1835, he was elected to the Assembly from this county, and was engaged in the performance of the duties of that office and of County Judge at the time of his death, July 10, 1836, aged 52. His widow, who subsequently became the wife of Stephen J. Brinkerhoff, is still living in Chittenango.

    Education and religion were the recipients of his munificent care. Himself liberally educated he evinced a generous disposition to impart its advantages to others. With this object in view he founded in Chittenango a polytechnic institute under the presidency of his brother, Rev. Andrew Yates, and in his will made a munificent devise for educational objects, which, however, realized little of the intended benefit. The Reformed church of Chittenango is largely the fruit of his energetic efforts in the interest of religion, and contains a memorial tablet on which is memorized the characteristics which distinguished his social life.

    Henry H. Cobb, who had been a clerk in Mr. Yates' store, became his partner in the mercantile business and the manufacture of lime, which he continued after Mr. Yates withdrew, till about 1837. He also owned seven canal boats, which he loaded himself, buying at one time all the grain raised in this section and carrying it to Albany. He, with many others in Chittenango, failed in 1837.9 His brother Nathan Cobb was associated with him in mercantile business. Both went eventually to Syracuse, where Henry H. died and Nathan still lives.

    George K. Fuller and Joseph Clary, (Fuller & Clary,) traded about a year in the Yates & Cobb store and were also engaged in the manufacture of water-lime, which they shipped to Canada. They sold their goods to Reuben Hawley, who had formerly traded in Canaseraga and Canastota, and failed after about a year. James Crouse, from Durhamville, succeeded Hawley in the same store. He was afterwards associated with his brother George, with whom he traded successfully some eight or ten years, when John A. Lamphere, from Pompey, and Fay H. Hutchins, from Fayetteville, became his partners. The trade was continued under the name of Crouse, Lamphere & Co. four or five years, when they removed to the brick store now occupied by Mr. Shepard which was built by the Cobbs and occupied by them till their failure. After a year or two they sold out at auction. The Crouses went to Syracuse, when the latter firm was formed, leaving Lamphere and Hutchins to carry on the business here. They were brothers of Daniel Crouse, of Canastota, and John Crouse, of Syracuse. Lamphere, then formed a partnership with James S. Atwell, from New York, and after trading about a year in the old Yates' store, withdrew and went to New York. Atwell continued and in 1866, associated with himself Ambrose E. Gorton, a native of Brookfield, who had been engaged in business since 1856. Atwell and Gorton traded under the name of J. S. Atwell & Co., till 1873, when Atwell went to Syracuse, where he became a member of the firm of Charles Chadwick & Co., and is at present a member of the firm of Atwell & Co. of that city. Mr. Gorton is still engaged in business.

    Robert and Daniel Stewart and A. J. and R. B. French formed a co-partnership, and after trading about a year the Frenches bought out the Stewarts. A year or two later Thomas A. Clark purchased an interest and the business was continued under the name of French, Clark & Co. a year or two, when R. B. French sold to his cousin, J. H. H. French. After four or five years the Frenches bought Clark's interest and engaged in the forwarding business at Chittenango Landing, which they established soon after the canal enlargement, also the grocery now kept there by Mr. Olcott.

    John Williams engaged in trade about 1822, and about 1824 or '25 took in as partner William Bates, with whom he continued till the fall of 1829, when they sold to David Mitchell and Edward Sims, who traded nearly three years under the name of Mitchell & Sims, when John Bates, who came here from Cazenovia June 4, 1829, and engaged as a clerk for Williams & Bates, bought Mitchell's interest. Sims & Bates traded till 1855, (having been associated one year with Damon Wells,) when Sims sold his interest to Benjamin French, and the business was continued under the name of John Bates & Co. till 1861, when it was closed out. Mr. Bates still resides in Chittenango, and though well advanced in years, is engaged in the forwarding business. We acknowledge our indebtedness to him for much of the information here given on Chittenango's mercantile interests.

    Moses Parmelee and Albert Dunham, the former of whom had previously kept a small grocery, traded a few years from about 1831 or '32. William Briggs came here about 1827 or '28 and traded several years. He afterwards removed to Chicago and built the Briggs House in that city. He became wealthy by his real estate transactions there. Hezekiah Beecher established himself in trade here at an early day and continued many years. He was associated with ----- Norton and William Lawrence, his son-in-law. Hugh White was another early merchant. He removed to Cohoes about 1844 or '45 and died there. Peter Groesbeck traded three or four years successfully from about 1844 or '45. The Atwater Brothers came about 1840, and after trading some two years returned to New York, whence they came. One of them was a sea captain, and was induced to give up the life of a seaman and find employment in the country. But he was out of his element and soon returned to his more congenial occupation. Curtis & Steele came from PennYan about the same time (1840) and left after being burned out about a year and a half after. Kittridge & Allen traded some two years from about 1832. Jacob Colyer came from Canajoharie, N. Y., in 1818, and was engaged in farming till 1827, when he commenced an apprenticeship at the tanning and currying business with David Riddell. He afterwards spent three years on the farm, and in 1833 engaged in the boot and shoe business, which he continued till 1853. Alfred Bellamy commenced trading about 1834 or '35 in company with a brother, whose interest he bought after a few years. He was subsequently associated with James Walrath, who had clerked for him, and traded under the name of Bellamy & Walrath four or five years, when Bellamy removed to Watkins. Walrath continued the business till his failure three or four years ago, having been associated some six or eight years with his brother Richard. Henry and George Perry traded some eight or ten years from about 1835 and failed. They were succeeded by ------ Cook, who traded about a year and failed. Many others have traded for short periods.

    The other merchants now engaged in business are: Benjamin Jenkins, a native of Barre, Mass., who removed thence to Chittenango in 1834, was engaged some five years as clerk in the store of James Crouse & Co., and in 1840 established himself in mercantile business, which he has continued to the present time, having been associated with P. D. Harrington from 1841 to 1867, and since then with his son, Benjamin R. Jenkins, under the name of B. Jenkins & Son; Walrath & Harbottle, (Richard R. Walrath and Joseph Harbottle,) general merchants, successors to a business established in 1860 by Richard R. Walrath and C. V. Harbottle, under the name of Harbottle & Walrath, who associated with themselves in 1867 Joseph Harbottle, father of C. V. Harbottle, and continued by them till 1870, when C. V. Harbottle retired, and the name was changed to Walrath & Harbottle; Boardman & Harrison, (A. V. Boardman, a native of Canandaigua, and Robert Harrison, a native of England, whence he emigrated with his father's family at the age of twelve years to Verona, and thence to Chittenango,) clothiers, who have been engaged in business at different times some twenty years, Mr. Harrison having been intermediately associated some ten years with John Colyer, during which time Mr. Boardman was engaged in merchant tailoring; L. E. Shepard, general merchant, a native of Port Henry, Essex county, who came here from Brooklyn and commenced business in 1861, in company with R. J. Tappen, who sold to B. W. Soper in 1866, and the latter about 1871, to Mr. Shepard; Robert Kennedy, grocer, a native of Chittenango, who commenced business in 1863; Lyman Gay, hardware merchant, a native of Franklin, Delaware county, who came in 1865, in company with Lucius M. Conine from Preble, Cortland county, to which place Conine returned after selling his interest to Mr. Gay about two and one-half years later; Nicholas Greminger, furniture dealer, a native of Germany, who commenced business in 1866; Jerry Taylor, dealer in boots and shoes, who came from Hartsville, Onondaga county, and commenced business in 1866, and was associated some four or five years with his son William J. Taylor, and subsequently between one and two years with E. Root; J. H. Walrath, grocer, who is a native of Canajoharie, Montgomery county, whence he came to Chittenango over forty years ago, and commenced business in 1869, in company with his son Alfred, whose interest he purchased in 1873; H. M. Barrett, dealer in stoves and hardware, who has been engaged in business about eleven years, but has done business in this line as journeyman and principal some twenty-nine years; Fred. W. Lamphere, druggist, who is a native of New Woodstock in this county, and commenced business in Mav, 1875; John Colyer, dealer in boots and shoes, who commenced business in September, 1879, having been previously engaged in farming and tailoring in this town; W. P. Maine, general merchant, a native of Sullivan, who came here from Bridgeport, where he had done business two years, and commenced trading May 29, 1880; Edgar Drew, grocer, who is a native of Georgetown, came here from Otselic, and commenced business April 1, 1880; F. W. Stillman, Jr., jeweler; and Mrs. J. J. Stillman and Mrs. C. F. Paige, milliners.

    POSTMASTERS.---The postoffice at Chittenango is believed to have been established about 1816, through the influence of John B. Yates, and William K. Fuller to have been the first postmaster. Mr. Fuller was succeeded in the office by Henry H. Cobb, who held it many years, till about 1835, George Ehle, who was then keeping tavern in the present Dixon House, Dr. Samuel Kennedy, who held it four or five years, Benjamin Jenkins, who held it from about 1844 to 1852, Benjamin D. French, Benjamin Jenkins, P. D. Harrington, who held the office in 1868, and Ambrose E. Gorton, the present incumbent, who was appointed Dec. 11, 1872.

    PHYSICIANS.---The first physician at Chittenango was Dr. Weed, who removed to Manlius and died there. Drs. John Kennedy, Tilden and Amsden, the latter from Massachusetts, practiced here while located at Canaseraga, Amsden as early as 1808, and Tilden a little later. Dr. Kennedy was a native of Coleraine, Mass., and came here as early as 1815 and practiced several years. He removed with his family to Dryden, Tompkins county. After his removal, about 1825, his brothers, Samuel, Isaac and James Kennedy, all physicians, and natives of Coleraine, Mass., came here from Herkimer county, and engaged in the practice of their profession. Samuel continued here till his death, Feb. 1, 1849, aged 59. Isaac practiced several years and removed to Spencer, Tioga county, where he died. James went to one of the Western States between 1840 and 1850, and died there. Robert Kennedy, a grocer in Chittenango, and Judge Charles L. Kennedy, of Morrisville, are sons of Dr. Samuel's.

    Drs. Samuel and Edward Fuller, brothers, and natives of Schenectady, removed thence to Chittenango, the former about 1822 and the latter in 1827. Both were graduates of Union College, both graduated in medicine at New York, and both likewise commenced their medical practice in this village. Samuel continued till 1868, when he removed to New York where he died soon after. Edward continued to reside here till his death, Jan. 22, 1877, but did not practice for some twenty years previous to that time. Both were very successful practitioners and were highly esteemed in the community.

    Isaac Thomson Teller was born in Tioga county, Oct. 14, 1798, and graduated at the Cincinnati Medical College in 1832. He commenced practice in Dayton, Ohio, and in 1838 removed to Whitesboro, Oneida county. In 1842 he removed to Chittenango, where he practiced until his death, June 30, 1874. William Oaks established himself in practice here about 1851. He remained about five years, removed to DeRuyter and subsequently to Hamilton, where he practiced till his death, Sept. 4, 1863, aged 42. P. S. Arndt came here about 1853, and after practicing about three years removed to Chicago. R. S. Bishop came from Medina, Orleans county, where he is now practicing, about seventeen years ago, practiced some two years and removed to Brockport. Dr. Reynolds, a graduate of Bellevue Hospital Medical College, came here in the spring of 1865, and after remaining about a year removed to the east part of the county. W. H. Griffith studied medicine in Waterville and came from Nelson, his native town. He practiced about a year in 1876-7.

    The present physicians are Sylvanus D. Hanchett, who was born in Marshall, Oneida county, March 24, 1827, studied medicine at the age of eighteen with Dr. John Ash, of New Haven, Oswego county, graduated at the Eclectic Medical College of Syracuse, March 6, 1851, and entered upon the practice of his profession that year at Central Square, from whence, in 1853, he removed to Chittenango; Mrs. Mary E. Hanchett, who was born in Minden, Montgomery county, Sept. 10, 1826, studied medicine at Central Square, graduated at the Eclectic Medical College of in March, 1852, and commenced practice in Chittenango in 1853; Merchant Billington, who was born in Sullivan, Dec. 2, 1836, educated at Cazenovia Seminary, studied medicine in 1856, with Dr. Wm. Oaks, then of Chittenango, graduated at Castleton Medical College, at Castleton, Vt., in June, 1860, and commenced practice that year in Chittenango, where he has practiced continuously since, with the exception of one year---1877---when he represented Madison county in the Assembly; John R. Eaton, who was born in Arlington, Vt., April 5, 1849, educated at Hungerford Collegiate Institute in Adams, N. Y., studied medicine with Dr. David H. Armstrong, in Auburn, graduated at the Medical College of Syracuse University, Feb. 19, 1875, in which year he entered upon the practice of his profession in Chittenango, and W. Estus Deuel, who was born in Galen, Wayne county, April 18, 1852, graduated at the New York Homeopathic Medical College, March 4, 1876, entered upon the practice of his profession in Troy in April, 1876, and removed thence to Chittenango in November, 1877.

    LAWYERS.---The pioneer lawyer of Chittenango was William K. Fuller, who was born in Schenectady, Nov. 24, 1792, and educated in the schools of his native place, graduating at Union College. He read law with Henry and John B. Yates, and after his admission in 1814 formed a law partnership with the latter, with whom, in the summer of 1814, he removed to Utica, and thence to Chittenango in the spring of 1816. Here he opened a law office on the site of the residence of William Blair, near the union school building, but never practiced to any considerable extent after that was burned. He was an able lawyer and an accomplished surveyor, and though to some extent he employed his talents in both these avocations after he had ceased to practice them professionally, his services for many years of his residence here were wholly gratuitous. He was the honored recipient of numerous civil and military offices both during his residence here and previously. Besides holding many minor offices, he was appointed District Attorney of Madison county, March 26, 1821, Adjutant General on the staff of Gov. Yates in 1823, having previously held the intermediate grades from the rank of Captain. He was a Member of Assembly from Madison county in 1829 and 1830, and a Representative in Congress from 1833 to 1837. Some years since General Fuller returned to his paternal homestead in Schenectady, where he still resides in venerable bachelorhood.

    Daniel B. Cady came here from Johnstown about 1828 and practiced law till about 1834 or '35, when he removed to Columbia county, where Feb. 18, 1840, he was appointed County Judge. During his residence here he married a daughter of Dr. Fay, who was one of the early physicians here. R. John Everett came here soon after Cady left, but remained only a year or two. Horatio Gates Warner and Hi-ram Cummings were contemporary practitioners for several years. Warner removed to Rochester, where he became Associate Judge, and Feb. 8, 1871, was appointed a Regent of the University of New York. ------- Smith came from Salisbury, Herkimer county, during the Patriot War with which he was in sympathy, and after practicing two or three years returned to Salisbury. Duane Brown came about the time Smith left and practiced successfully some ten years. He removed to Morrisville and died there. Lorenzo D. Dana practiced here a short time previous to his election as County Clerk, in 1849, when he removed to Morrisville and never returned here. He is the present cashier of the Morrisville Bank, an office he has held for many years. William E. Lansing, who was born in Sullivan in 1822, read law in Utica with Joshua Spencer, and commenced practice in 1845, and Charles L. Kennedy, also a native of Sullivan, practiced in company many years, doing a large and lucrative business. Lansing was elected District Attorney of Madison county in 1850, County Clerk in 1855, and a Representative in Congress from 1861 to 1863, and again from 1871 to 1875. On Lansing's election as County Clerk, Kennedy removed to Morrisville to perform the duties of that office, and has continued his residence there though their law partner-ship continued till Lansing's election to Congress in 1860. In 1858 Kennedy succeeded Lansing as County Clerk, and in 1867 was elected County Judge, which office he still holds by re-election. Lansing continued to reside and practice here till the close of his Congressional term---1875---when he removed to Syracuse, where he now resides.

    The present attorneys are Daniel D. Walrath, the oldest of those now practicing here, who was born in Sullivan and read law with Hon. John G. Stower, who came here at an advanced age;10 Joseph J. L. Baker, who was born in Nelson, Nov. 24, 1833, educated at Cazenovia Seminary, graduated at the Albany Law School in June, 1860, in which year he engaged in the practice of his profession in Chittenango, and Charles Kellogg who was born in Minden, Montgomery county, Dec. 4, 1839, educated at Yates Academy, Chittenango, read law with W. E. Lansing, was admitted in 1861, in which year he commenced practice in Chittenango. In April, 1878, he formed a law partnership with J. J. L. Baker, which still continues under the firm name of Kellogg & Baker. Mr. Kellogg was a State Senator in 1874-5.

    MANUFACTURES.---The growth and commercial importance of Chittenango commenced with the development of its manufacturing interests, which took form during the agitation which immediately preceded the construction of the Erie Canal, which had an important bearing on their continuance and enlargement. The initial step was taken in 1812, when Judge Jedediah Sanger, of Whitesboro, and Judge Youngs, of New Hartford, erected the rear portion of the present grist-mill. A saw-mill and clothing works were built at the same time. The saw-mill was taken down many years ago; the clothing works, which occupied the site of the cotton mill, were burned down. Previous to this, Chittenango was simply one of the many stage points on the Seneca turnpike. In 1816, John B. Yates, William K. Fuller and David P. Hoyt, all originally from Schenectady, purchased this mill property in company of William Britton, and gave the first great impetus to the industrial development of the embryo village, which then numbered about 100 inhabitants. Hoyt soon returned to Utica, whence he came, and Yates soon after acquired Fuller's interest in the mill property, which he retained till his death, and which remained in his estate till its final, settlement, about 1854. It was then sold to Rathbone & Son, who enlarged the grist-mill. They sold to James Broadhead, who sold to James and Ransford Button, who sold to E. A. Judd, the present proprietor, about 1875. The mill is known as the Chittenango Mills, does a merchant and custom business, and contains four runs of stones, which are propelled by water-power from Chittenango creek, which has a fall of eighteen feet.

    John B. Yates also had an oil-mill, which was burned about the close of the war, and a saw-mill on the site of Beard, Crouse & Co.'s paper-mill, which was converted into a paper-mill for the manufacture of mill-board by Mr. Paddock during the war and did a prosperous business. John B. Yates afterwards run it again as a saw-mill, and subsequently H. L. Jones fitted it up for the manufacture of wrapping paper, for which purpose it is still used by Beard, Crouse & Co., of Fayetteville, who succeeded Mr. Jones in the proprietorship about two years ago.

    In 1824, Mr. Yates built a woolen factory, a stone structure, on the site of the present cotton factory in Chittenango, which afterwards became the property of James Broadhead. It was burned in 1866, and rebuilt by Mr. Broadhead the same year, but left un-occupied by him. In December, 1867, it was purchased by T. H. Hintermister, of Ithaca, and his brother, Otto J. Hintermister, from Switzerland, for the purpose of carrying on the manufacture of cotton goods. Early in 1868 the latter gentleman went to Europe to give his personal attention to the purchase of cotton machinery, which was built by the best makers in Manchester and Blackburn, England. In June of the same year he returned with a complete set of machinery, consisting of 1,500 spindles and forty looms, with all the necessary preparatory machinery. In the fall of 1868 the manufacture of cotton sheetings was commenced and continued till the spring of 1869, when the factory was temporarily stopped for the purpose of replacing the water-wheel, which was found to be inadequate, with an improved Leffel turbine wheel, putting in a new steam boiler, and two additional self-acting mules and twenty-eight more looms, which were also bought in England. Before the factory was ready for resuming operation, a stock company with a subscribed capital of $200,000 was formed, mostly among the residents of Chittenango and vicinity. This company, chartered in August, 1869, under the name The Chittenango Cotton Company, purchased the cotton factory from Hintermister Bros., also the distillery property, one and one-half miles south of the village, from R. and D. Stewart, with the intention of erecting there another cotton-mill, where only the operation of spinning should be carried on, and the weaving done exclusively in the factory in the village. This project, which would have provided for a 200 loom mill, was never carried out.

    The trustees for the company for the first year were D. Stewart, R. Stewart, E. Pennock, T. H. Hintermister, D. Gates, P. Walrath, R. Button, P. S. Atwell and J. J. Wager; and its first officers were D. Stewart, President; E. Pennock, Vice-President; R. Stewart, Treasurer, and Otto Hintermister, Secretary and Manager of the cotton-mill.

    In 1870 twenty more looms were added, making then in all eighty-eight looms. In 1872 a boiler and engine house for a sixty-horse-power Corliss engine and boiler was erected, to afford sufficient motive power during low water; and in 1873 the factory was enlarged by the addition of a one-story and basement stone building 45 by 107 feet on the east end, but owing to the panic which broke out in the fall of that year and the unpropitious times which followed it, the interior of that building was left unfinished and the project of filling it with machinery was abandoned.

    In the spring of 1879 the affairs of the company were placed in the hands of a receiver, and in July of the same year the cotton factory was sold at public auction to E. Pennock. This gentleman associated himself with Otto J. Hintermister, and commenced a thorough overhauling and repairing of the buildings and machinery, putting in new timbers and floors throughout the old part and finishing up the new addition, into which a portion of the machinery was re-moved and set up. In February, 1880, the improvements were completed and the factory again got in operation. It gives employment at present to about 56 persons. It is the intention of the present owners to put in additional machinery at an early day to double its present capacity, making the weekly production 50,000 yards of cloth. The distillery referred to was operated by the Messrs. Wells and Stewarts, who became wealthy by the business, which, however, proved disastrous to the cotton company. About four years ago it was converted into a paper-mill by A. Crichton, who is still engaged principally in the manufacture of wrapping paper. His large family principally supplies the operatives.

    A third paper-mill was started in 1852, by Richard R. and D. D. Walrath and Dr. P. S. Arndt, but was in operation only two years. The business was unprofitable and was discontinued. The mill was operated by steam, and was located on Chittenango creek, three-fourths of a mile below the cotton factory. The building was removed to Canaseraga a few years later and converted into a creamery which is still in operation.

    Walrath's foundry and machine shops, located on Chittenango creek, in the north part of the village, was established about forty-five or six years ago by Daniel Walrath, who carried on the business till his death, which resulted from an accident in the shop while unloading a quantity of copper, Aug. 4, 1856, at the age of 61. He was succeeded by his son Peter, the present proprietor, who was associated the first two years with his brothers Jesse and Abel. The business was largely increased by Daniel during his life, and subsequently by his son, who enlarged the buildings. The chief articles of manufacture are threshing machines, portable steam-engines and iron bridges, though general repairing is done. The works give employment to some eight persons and are operated by water from the creek, which has a fall of five and a half feet. They consist of foundry, machine shop, blacksmith shop and pattern room, all of which are separate buildings and located on the west bank of the creek, and a planing mill on the east bank.

    Daniel F. Kellogg had a foundry which occupied the site of the residence of Ebenezer Pennock, and was in operation some six or seven years, but at a later date.

    In 1811, David Riddell, son of the pioneer Robert Riddell, went to Peterboro and learned the trade of tanner and currier with Benjamin Wilber, and in 1815, he established himself in the business of tanning, currying and shoemaking in Chittenango, in company with his brother Robert, who withdrew from the business in 1840. David continued the business till about 1865. The tannery was first started by a man named McBride about 1808. He left after a year or two. The business was revived by Vincent Wilber about 1812 or '13, and surrendered by him to the Riddells, who purchased the property of Jonathan Smith, neither McBride nor Wilber having acquired a title. The tannery was located on the lot now occupied by the Baptist church and the brick store adjoining.

    Another tannery was built about 1817, by John Bouck, on the south end of the grist-mill in Chittenango, with only a plaster-mill between them. It was operated a few years by other parties, Bouck never carrying on the business himself.

    HOTELS.---The Yates House was built at an early day, previous to 1805, and was first kept by a man named Wilson. The original building is included in the present one. The present proprietor is A. J. Wright. The Dixon House was built in 1827, by Timothy Pratt, who kept it a year. It has since been kept successfully by Col. George Ellie, Harley Judd, Uri Parry, Chauncey Abbott, who enlarged it, Clark Dixon, the present owner, who leases it to Abner P. Bellinger, who took possession in September, 1876.

    BANKS.---The Chittenango Bank was organized and commenced business April 1, 1853. The capital, which was originally $110,000, was increased Feb. 5, 1854, to $150,000. The first directors were: George Crouse, George Grant, John A. Lamphere, James Crouse, John Knowles, John Crouse, Jairus French, William E. Lansing, Daniel Gates, George E. Downer, Daniel Stewart, John A. Campbell, Hiram Brown; and the first officers, George Crouse, President; George Grant, Vice-President; David H. Rasbach, Cashier. Damon Wells succeeded to the presidency Dec. 20, 1855, and Daniel Gates, Oct. 5, 1858; and George E. Downer, to the cashiership, Jan. 8, 1859, Oliver J. Gates, Feb. 1, 1860, and Benjamin Jenkins, Jan. 1, 1863. This was the first bank started in the village. The building it occupied was erected for its accommodation in 1853. It is the one occupied by the present bank. It closed its business in the summer of 1864.

    The First National Bank of Chittenango was organized Dec. 28, 1863, with a capital of $50,000, which has been increased at different times to $150,000, the present capital. Business was commenced in that part of the present postoffice building now occupied by Siver & Lamphere as a meat market, and July 20, 1864, was transferred to the building it now occupies, and formerly occupied by the Chittenango Bank. The first directors were: James Broadhead, Daniel F. Kellogg; George Kellogg, Daniel D. Walrath, Henry C. Howe, Edward Sims, Ebenezer Pen-nock, John H. Walrath, Peter Walrath; and the first officers, James Broadhead, President; Peter Walrath, Vice-President; George Kellogg, Cashier. July 20, 1864, Robert Stewart succeeded to the presidency, and B. Jenkins to the cashiership. Jan. 14, 1873, Peter Walrath succeeded to the presidency, and Albert H. Downer to the vice-presidency. D. D. Walrath was elected to the latter office Jan. 8, 1878.

    Both banks have done a successful business, returned handsome dividends to the stockholders, and fostered under their judicious management the business interests of the village and town.

    FIRE DEPARTMENT.---Immediately after the incorporation of the village, measures were instituted for the protection of the village property from ravages by fire. At a meeting of the trustees held May 30, 1842, the following named persons were appointed firemen: Thomas Dickinson, Isaac R. Colyer, Isaac Colyer, E. M. Tobey, D. P. Kellogg, James A. Monroe, Charles A. Warner, B. D. French, M. E. Walrath, James S. Brown, Benjamin Jennings, A. I. Wells, Jonathan Burt, Edward Sims, P. Herrington, James Crouse, William Plank, P. S. Fairchild, Marcus Plank, A. V. Boardman, N. Hemsted, James Walrath, C. R. Norton, Damon Wells; and the following as a hook and ladder company, Wallace Riddell, E. Henry Cobb, James Jones, A. Beckwith, James Cole, Luke Brissau, Henry Eygenbroat, ----- Schoonmaker, W. H. Gale.

    November 19, 1842, it was decided by a vote of 75 to 12 to levy a tax of $250 on the taxable inhabitants of the village for the purchase of a fire engine and apparatus for the hook and ladder company. An engine was obtained during the winter, but on trial proved defective. Later another was obtained from Lewis Selye, of Rochester, at a cost of $325, and paid for in June, 1843. An engine house was built in 1843, at a cost of $142.62.

    The above fire company was disbanded July 29, 1848, and a new one appointed, consisting of Thomas Dickinson, James Crouse, James Walrath, James Rouse, Marcus Plank, Joseph Young, D. F. Kellogg, Edward Sims, William Plank, Daniel D. Walrath, Damon Wells and George E. Downer.

    The department at present consists of two companies: Hope Engine Company No. 1, which was organized in July, 1880, with 30 members; and Yates Hose Company No. 1, organized at the same time with to members. The officers of the engine company are: H. E. Barrett, Foreman; Geo. Dayharsh, First Assistant Foreman; C. F. Paige, Second Assistant Foreman; C. C. Grimshaw, Secretary; George Keesler, Treasurer; and of the hose company, W. E. Deuel, Foreman; F. W. Stillman, First Assistant Foreman; J. D. Root, Secretary. The equipment consists of one good hand engine, one hose carriage, and about 500 feet of serviceable hose. For several years previous to the present organization the village was destitute of a fire department.

    The Madison County Times was established Aug. 14, 1870, by Arthur White, who published it seven years, when he sold it to H. E. Barrett, the present publisher. It is an eight-column paper, independent in politics, and has a circulation of 800.11

    The Yates Polytechnic Institute was founded in 1824, by Hon. John B. Yates, who purchased for its accommodation the large, fine building erected in 1814-'15, by a stock company for a tavern, and first kept as such by Elisha Cary, who finished the building and kept it several years. Mr. Yates sustained the school for eight years with a corps of six teachers, under the presidency of his brother, Rev. Andrew Yates, at a great pecuniary sacrifice, when it was closed for want of adequate support. From 1832 to 1837, it was again used as an inn under the proprietorship of Samuel M. Rowell. On the death of Mr. Yates, in 1836, the building became the property of Henry Yates, who deeded it to trustees for school purposes, and the name was changed from The Polytechny to the Yates Polytechnic Institute. In 1837, it was again opened as an academic school by Rev. George W. Thompson, who continued it five years. William Velasko succeeded him as its principal in 1843, and sustained that relation till 1861. During the succeeding ten years it was continued with varying success under four different principals, and in 1871, was merged into the Union Free School of Chittenango.

    Yates Union Free School District No. 2 of Sullivan.12 At a meeting of the inhabitants of school districts Nos. 2 and 17, convened at Union Hall in Chittenango, Aug. 14, 1871, it was decided by a vote of 101 to 8 to establish a union free school within the limits of those districts, pursuant to the provisions of chapter 555 of the laws of 1864 and the amendments thereof. Aug. 18, 1871, the following nine trustees were elected and constituted a Board of Education: Robert Kennedy, P. J. Flaherty, C. V. Harbottle, James S. Atwell, J. Hobart, H. French, Charles Kellogg, Lyman Gay, J. J. L. Baker and Albert H. Downer. They were authorized to adopt the Yates Polytechnic Institute, located within the districts, as the academic department of the union school, which they did Aug. 25, 1871. At a meeting of the Board, Aug. 21, 1871, Charles Kellogg was elected President, and J. J. L. Baker, clerk. They were re-elected to the same offices Oct. 15, 1872.

    Sept. 2, 1871, Isaac T. Teller, Thomas French, Jacob Colyer, Daniel Stewart, Benjamin Jenkins, Peter Walrath and A. H. Downer, trustees of the Yates Polytechnic Institute, declared their office as trustees vacant and delivered the Institute, with its appurtenances, to the Board of Education of the Yates Union Free School.

    Sept. 12, 1871, district No. 6, and part of district No. 15 were annexed to the union school district.

    Sept. 21, 1871, the Polytechnic building was adopted as the site of the union school; the Board of Education were authorized to sell the school house sites and buildings thereon in former districts Nos. 2, 6 and 17; and $6,000 were voted for the purpose of repairing the Polytechnic building. Sept. 22, 1871. John Bates was elected Treasurer, and William E. Blair, collector. Oct. 11, 1871, Prof. Milton J. Griffin, of Lima, was chosen Principal; Mrs. Annie Jones, of Rome, Preceptress; Mrs. Helen O. Loomis, Second Assistant. Oct. 24, 1871, Miss Minnie L. Barnes was chosen teacher of the primary department. School opened in the school houses in districts Nos. 2 and 17, Nov. 6, 1871, under the supervision of Mrs. Annie L. Jones, Mrs. Helen 0. Loomis and Miss Minnie L. Barnes, pending repairs on the Polytechnic building, Mrs. Jones discharging the duties of Principal. Nov. 9, 1871, Miss Ella Carroll, of Rome, was added to the corps of teachers as teacher of French, German, Latin and higher mathematics.

    Nov. 22, 1871, $3,000 were voted to complete repairs on the Polytechnic building, which was accepted as being completed Feb. 27, 1872.

    The following have been the succession of Principals: H. Elbert Barrett, chosen Aug. 9, 1872; Edwin P. Ayer, chosen Aug. 28, 1873;13 Albert W. Bedel, chosen Sept. 17, 1873; Prof. A. Dygart, chosen July 20, 1875; Anthony Magoris, chosen Dec. 10, 1875; J. H. Kelley, chosen Dec. 19, 1876, and F. R. Moore, chosen June 27, 1877.

    Present school officers: Peter Walworth, President; Otto J. Hintermister, Treasurer; A. E. Gorton, Secretary; Peter Walrath, A. E. Gorton, A. K. Hall, E. A. Judd, B. R. Jenkins, J. Bettinger, Charles Button, William J. Taylor, Trustees.

    CHURCHES.---The Presbyterians were the first to conduct religious exercises in the town, and soon after the first permanent settlements were made we find them systematizing their labors through the medium of an organized society, which had its focus at Canaseraga and radiated over a large extent of territory. Sept. 11, 1802, Bethzura Presbyterian Society met at the "house or barn" of Conrad Lower in Canaseraga, pursuant to call of "Phineas Cadwell, a member of the Presbyterian congregation on the Genesee road, (there being no minister, elders, deacon, church war-den or vestrymen belonging to the said society or congregation,") made Aug. 21, 18o2, and elected Ebenezer Caulking and Oliver Clark, returning officers, and Walter Brasher, Oliver Clark, Phineas Cadwell, Harmanus VanAntwerp, Ebenezer Caulking and William Sternbergh, trustees. The first pastor connected with this church of whom we have any information- was Rev. Ira M. Olds, who was ordained and installed pastor of this church in connection with the church of Lenox, (Quality Hill,) where he was stationed, and continued this joint relation till Sept. 2, 1817, when this church was dissolved and by request of its members incorporated with the church of Lenox, where he continued his labors till April 11, 1832, when he was dismissed by act of the Presbytery.

    The remnant of this church who resided in this locality formed the nucleus of a new church which was organized soon after, and maintained a feeble existence for a few years, practically losing its identity in 1828, by a partial union with the Reformed Dutch. Among the ministers of the Presbyterian order who succeeded Mr. Olds in this vicinity were Rev, Mr. Adams, who was located on the lake shore, removed to the village about 1818 or '19, and preached a year or two; Charles Johnson, who was also hired a year or two, and Revs. Huntington and Gazelee. These meetings were usually held in the "Bethel," which was built about 1815 or '16, used for religious and school purposes, and occupied the small park in Chittenango opposite Geo. Walrath's blacksmith shop. After this ceased to accommodate those who desired to worship there, and the chapel in the "Polytechny," (which had also been used for religious meetings, conducted by Rev. Dr. Yates for the benefit of the students attending that school, but opened to the public,) was needed for school purposes, Dr. Yates fitted up a room on the second floor of the woolen mill, and there meetings were held, mainly for the students, but free to the public, till the Reformed church was built in 1828.

    The felt need of a house of worship led to the building of one by the Dutch Reformed Church of Chittenango, which was organized Jan. 12, 1828. The Presbyterians had moved in that direction, but were unable to consummate their wishes. Rev. Mr. Yates promised to use his influence to secure foreign aid if a Reformed church was built, and the Presbyterians were induced to unite with that society in the erection of a house of that denomination, which was built in 1828, and is still in use.

    The constituent members of the Reformed church were Rev. Andrew Yates, Principal of the "Polytechny," David R. Austin, a Professor in that institution, James A. VanVoast, a carpenter and joiner, who came here from Schenectady at the solicitation of John B. Yates, Joseph Slingerland, from Schoharie county, who then kept the "Polytechny" boarding house, and Stephen Alexander, also a Professor in the "Polytechny."

    Previous to the building of their church edifice, they like the Presbyterians, worshiped in the "Bethel," where services also held in turn by the Baptists, Methodists and Universalists. The Methodists, like the Presbyterians held regular services and were ministered to by Elders Dewey, Paddock, Puffer, Torrey and others.

    As the congregation was composed largely of Presbyterians, Hutchins Taylor, a minister of that denomination, was hired as a supply and served them about a year from the time of the organization. He was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Andrew Yates, who was the first regularly installed pastor; Rev. William H. Campbell, who remained about a year; John C. F. Hoes, who served from about 1835 to 1837; James Able, whose pastorate covered a period of seventeen years; S. P. M. Hastings, who served some three or four years; James R. Talmadge, who remained some seven years; Jacob H. Enders, who labored with them ten years; and C. O. Thatcher, the present pastor, who entered upon his labors April 1, 1880. All these were installed. For about a year between the pastorates of Hoes and Able they were supplied.

    The present number of members is 110. C. F. Pennock is Superintendent of the Sabbath School.

    The Presbyterians withdrew from the Reformed church soon after the organization of the latter, and about 1831 built the church in Chittenango now owned by the Catholics. In 1832 they reported thirty-six members, the largest number ever reported. In July, 1834 they connected themselves irregularly with a body of Perfectionists and Unionists, who styled themselves the Central Evangelical Association of New York. "In January following the church acknowledged their error and at their request were again received under the care of the Presbytery; but in November of the same year they notified the Presbytery that they had seceded from its jurisdiction. On the 6th of January, 1836, the Presbytery passed a vote of censure on the church and struck its name from the roll. This church, while it continued in connection with the Presbytery, was never prosperous. It never had a regularly installed pastor, and was more than half the time reported as vacant."14 They did not long survive this doctrinal change, and their church was soon after sold to the Baptists.

    The Baptist Church of Chittenango was organized in 1841, and received in that year to the Madison Association. Their first report, made in 1842, shows a membership of 39, 4 having been received during the year by baptism, 7 by letter, 4 dismissed and 1 died. T. Houston was then the pastor. He continued his labors till 1844, in which year they reported having paid for and thoroughly repaired their house, which was bought of the Presbyterians, thus making it "comfortable and inviting." John Smitzer became the pastor in 1846, and L. E. Swan in 1847. B. C. Crandle next served them a short time, in 1850. Then followed an interval when they were without a pastor. In 1852 J. J. Teeple was the pastor; in 1853 I. K. Brownson, who served them that and the following year. William C. Hubbard became the pastor in 1856, after an interval of a year's vacancy, and continued till 1857, in which year they reported "we have remodeled and refitted our sanctuary at a probable cost of between $700 and $800." In 1858 they were without a pastor, but had occasional preaching. In 1859 H. H. Rouse was the pastor, and in that year they reported that they did "not feel able to support preaching longer," and that their trials had "ripened almost into division." No report appears from them after this date, when a membership of 54 was reported, and in 1863 their name is dropped from the Association minutes.

    The First Baptist Church of Chittenango was organized Feb. 5, 1868, with twenty members, by an ecclesiastical council called for that purpose. The Society had previously worshiped in various places in the village. At this time Rev. William Stigar was supplying them with preaching, and under his labors during the year some thirty additions were made to the church. Soon after Rev. M. Judson Goff was called to the pastorate and served them faithfully and acceptably some three years. During this time the church bought a very desirable lot, centrally located, and built a house of worship on it at a cost, including lot, of about $7,000. The church was dedicated July 13, 1871, and at that time the entire indebtedness of the church was provided for. It has since been free from debt. The church has since maintained regular services; and while it has had no long pastorates, it has had some excellent and devoted men, who have labored faithfully and well. The increase in numbers has been steady and permanent, numbering at present about eighty. Connected with it is an interesting and flourishing Sabbath School under the superintendence of W. E. Ladd. June 11, 1879, it numbered ten officers and teachers and forty scholars.

    The pastors who have succeeded Mr. Goff are: Rev. F. M. Beebe, 1873; Rev. Ira Bennett, 1875; Rev. A. C. Ferguson, 1876-7; Rev. G. J. Travis, 1879.

    The First M. E. Church of Chittenango was organized Sept. 9, 1833, and John I. Walrath, Daniel Walrath, J. R. Knowlin, Wm. Metcalf and A. Comstock were elected trustees. Rev. Benjamin G. Paddock, who was then the preacher in charge, presided at the meeting held for that purpose. Their church edifice was built in 1833-34; burned, together with barn and sheds, March 9, 1862; and rebuilt in 1862-63. The present number of members is about 130.

    The following have been the pastors, so far as the records and other available sources of information enable us to glean them : James Atwell, 1835; E. P. Williams, 1842-44; David W. Thurston, 1844-45 ; O. Hesler, 1846; Z. D. Paddock, 1848; George Colegrove, 1850; James Atwell, 1851-52; R. Cook, 1853-54; George Bridge, 1856; A. J. Grover, 1858; J. Pilkinton, 1861-63; E. Owen, 1863; S. P. Gray, 1865; William Reddy, 1866; G. S. White, 1867; G. W. Mitchell, 1868-69; A. S. Graves, 1869; J. B. Longstreet, 1870-72; F. J. Whitney, 1873-74; Silas Ball, 1875; John Easter, 1876-79; James Erwin, fall of 1879.

    St. Paul's Episcopal Church of Chittenango was organized in 1855 by Rev. Dr. Smith, of Cazenovia, who had previously held services here for a few years. Among the constituent members were Sanford Cobb and Charlotte, his wife, Joseph Sanger, Thomas A. Clark and Hannah W., his wife, Mrs. J. G. Stower. Sanford Cobb and Joseph Sanger were the first wardens. Their church edifice was built in 1866, at a cost of about $5,000, and was consecrated the same year by Bishop Coxe. Previous to the erection of the church they worshiped in the "Bethel" till that was burned, afterwards some two years in the old Baptist church, now the Catholic church, and subsequently for about a year, while their church was in process of erection, in Union Hall. Mr. Smith preached for them till their house of worship was built and between one and two years afterwards, until failing health compelled him to confine his labors to Cazenovia, when Rev. James D. S. Pardee became the rector. From this time till the present year the rectors of this church have been the same as of the church in Perryville. During Mr. Ely's rectorship the membership was reduced by fourteen deaths and removals, which took away most of the members. In the spring of 1879 William S. Hayward was established as a missionary to the various churches in this locality, with residence at Canastota. He gives this parish one service every Sunday. This was once a flourishing church, but its membership has become very small by removals.

    St. Patrick's Church of Chittenango.---The first Catholic services were held in Chittenango about 1851 or '52, by Rev. Father Hayes, of Syracuse, who officiated some three times in the house of James Stewart, where services were held many years, and subsequently in Union Hall till about 1859, when they purchased the church formerly occupied by the Baptists, and originally by the Presbyterians, services having been held a few Sundays immediately preceding the purchase in the "Bethel." The price paid for their house was $900. Father Hayes was succeeded by Rev. Father Carl, who held regular services several years, by Rev. Father Rooney, one or two years, Rev. Father Corney, two or three years, during whose pastorate the church was bought, Rev. Father Patrick C. Brady, who served them fifteen years, and Rev. Father Charles A. Riley, the present pastor, who commenced his labors in 1875. During Father Brady's pastorate, repairs were made on the church to the value of about $900. All the priests, except Father Hayes, were stationed at Cazenovia. The church owns a cemetery of two acres which was donated to them in 1875, by Mrs. Mary E. Brinkerhoff.

    SOCIETIES.---Sullivan Lodge No. 148, F. & A. M. of Chittenango, was instituted June 29, 1804; revived Nov. 13, 1848; and re-chartered June 19, 1849. The officers in 1848, the first after the revival, were: Abner P. Downer, W. M.; Silas Judd, S. W.: Enos Cushing, J. W.; George Grant, Treasurer; William Doolittle, Secretary; Jairus French, S. D.; P. VanValkenburgh, J. D.; Samuel Fuller, and David Riddell, Stewards; Robert Riddell, Tiler. The number of members who united with the lodge from 1848 to 1878, either by initiation or affiliation, were 219.

    Officers of 1880---W. H. Stewart, W. M.; F. L. Webb, S. W.; B. R. Jenkins, J. W.; O. J. Hintermister, Treasurer; C. Bartholomew, Secretary; C. E. Richardson, S. D.; T. M. Mitchell, J. D.; C. Wells, S. M. C.; G. H. Dennis, J. M. C.; E. S. Hamblin, Chaplain; B. M. Mitchell, Tiler.

    Joseph Bonney Post No. 64, G. A. R., was organized June 17, 1878, and chartered July 4, 1878. The charter members were:---P. P. Carl, J. M. Vosburgh, W. S. Guild, S. C. Barnes, George H. Adams, W. H. Case, John Horn, F. W. Stillman, Michael Kinney, A. VanAllen, C. M. Bickerman, John Lillie, William Borman, John Snow, E. A. Drew, J. Bonchen, C. E. Pennock, George Hines, Rev. J. Henry Enders. The present officers are:---Isaac Boothroyd, Commander; C. E. Pennock, S. V. C.; C. Davenport, J. V. C.; J. M. Vosburgh, Chaplain; P. P. Carl, Officer of the Day; C. Bartholomew, Adjutant; F. W. Stillman, Quarter-master; A. Van Allen, Officer of the Guard. The present number of members is 33. Meetings are held the 2d and 4th Mondays of each month.

    Chittenango Lodge No. 196, A. O. U. W., was organized Jan. 20, 1879, with twenty members. The first officers were: P. H. Wage, P. M. W.; W. H. Stewart, M. W.; F. W. Stillman, Foreman; P. P. Carl, Overseer; H. E. Barrett, Recorder; B. R. Jenkins, Financier; A. P. Bellinger, Receiver; L. F. Sherwood, Guide; C. C. Grimshaw, I. W.; George Miller, O. W. These differ from the present officers only in the following particulars: A. K. Hall, Guide; W. W. Thompson, I. W.; H. W. Bender, O. W. The present number of members is 45. Meetings are held the first and third Tuesdays of each month.


    Chittenango Station is situated on the New York Central Railroad in the central part of the town, and contains one church, (Free Methodist, built in 1878,) a district school, one hotel, (the Webb House, built in 1863, by J. T. Burton, who kept it eighteen months, and kept since successively by Edwin Jewett, George Crandall and F. L. Webb, the present proprietor, who took possession in April, 1874,) two stores and a population of about 200, many of whom are railroad men.

    This place dates from the building of the railroad, previously to which it was an almost unbroken wilderness. The first merchant here was J. T. Burton, who opened a small grocery in 1856, on the site of the hotel, and in 1866 built the store directly opposite, now occupied by his brother; N. J. Burton, when the business was enlarged by the addition of dry goods to the stock. Mr. Burton was associated the first year with his cousin, G. P. Burton, and after an interval of two years, for a like period with F. C. Block. In May, 1875, he became associated with his brother, N. J. Burton, who succeeded to the entire business in 1878, and still continues it. About 1857 or '58, Porter & Green opened the store now occupied by Albert W. Green, in which they were succeeded in the order named, by William Cain, George Cripse, Washington Conine, John Cronk and Albert W. Green, the latter of whom commenced business in September, 1877.

    The first postmaster at Chittenango Station was William Macomber, who was appointed on the establishment of the office in 1863. He was succeeded by Washington Conine, J. D. Burton, J. H. Cronk and N. J. Burton, the present incumbent, who was appointed in August, 1878.


    Canaseraga, the ancient site of one of the Tuscarora villages, is situated one and one-fourth miles north-east of Chittenango, at the point where Canaseraga Creek crosses the Seneca turnpike, and contains one church (known as the "Free Church," which was built some fifty years ago by the Methodists and Universalists, and subsequently principally occupied for a time by the Episcopalians, though neither denomination have an organized society,) a district school, one store (kept by Cyrus T. Howes, a native of Dunbarton, Oneida county, who commenced business Feb. 14, 1879,) a grist-mill, a blacksmith shop, kept by Henry Slee, a creamery, owned by Avery, Wadsworth & Co., and a population of about 200. A postoffice was established here at an early day and named Sullivan, and Sullivan village (Canaseraga,) was incorporated in 1823 for the purpose of retaining the name of the postoffice, which had been previously removed to Chittenango, which had then developed a greater importance than Canaseraga, the early seat of Sullivan's enterprises. No further advantage was taken of the Act of incorporation than to perpetuate the distinctive name of Sullivan, and the name of the postoffice at Chittenango, which had previously been Sullivan, was changed that year (1823). But as there was not sufficient business to support the office at this point, it was abandoned some twenty years ago, and the original name of Canaseraga again became familiar.

    The Canaseraga Mills were originally built at an early day, previous to 1805. The present one was built in 1855, by Mr. Paddock, and is now owned by Daniel Hull, who came in possession of the property April 1, 1879. It contains three runs of stones, which are propelled by water from Canaseraga Creek, with a fall of sixteen feet.


    East Boston, originally settled by families from Massachusetts, is situated about three miles north-east of Chittenango. It contains a district school, two stores, (one kept by Edward Brown since 1879, and the other by Bates & Menzie, since the spring of 1880, Bates having previously traded about two years,) the extensive cider and vinegar factory of Messrs. Harrison & Co., of New York City, said to be the largest in the country, except one located at Rochester, the cider-mill of McIntyre Brothers, who do a small business---mostly custom---in the season, a blacksmith shop, kept by Alfred Keene, and a cheese factory, owned by Mr. Hakes. The postoffice is kept at Canaseraga Station, adjacent to which East Boston lies, but the name of the office is East Boston. The present postmaster is Frederick Ebenspourgher. Peter I. Koons was the postmaster in 1878.

    The cider and vinegar factory of Messrs. Harrison & Co., was established in 1857, and the facilities for manufacturing have increased from boo bushels to 3,000 bushels per day. There are three buildings, erected respectively in 1857, 1869 and 1876, at an entire cost of $30,000. The main building is 100 by 104 feet, three stories high, and has a wing of the same height on each side, one of which is 150 by 50 feet, and the other, 125 by 50 feet, with very fine cellars under all. The capacity of the engine used is thirty-five-horse-power; and the quantity of cider made per day of twelve hours, 400 barrels. The business gives employment to forty persons, and requires a capital of $35,000.

    Near East Boston, on Canaseraga creek, is a saw-mill owned by H. W. Sheldon, and built about 1825.


    Chittenango Landing is situated on the Erie canal between Chittenango and Chittenango Station, near the former, is the seat of considerable business enterprise, containing the dry dock of Frank Hosley, who also keeps a small grocery for the accommodation of his men, to the number of fifteen, engaged in building and repairing therein, the canal grocery of Jacob Olcott, a German, who bought out Lemuel Graves and commenced business in 1878, two store-houses, and the coal yard of Chester Bartholomew. The dry-dock was built at the time of the canal enlargement by John H. Walrath and Hiram Graves, who carried on the business four or five years.


    Bolivar is situated on the canal about a mile west of Chittenango Landing. Abner P. Downer, who was interested in lands in that locality, established a canal grocery there before the canal enlargement, and made an effort to build up the place and bring it into prominence. He also had a store-house there. Joseph Harbottle was also engaged in mercantile business there during the enlargement of the canal. A canal grocery is now kept there by George Dewey, who succeeded his father, William Dewey, in the same business.


    Perryville, which lies partially in this town, has been noticed in connection with the town of Fenner.

    CHURCHES.---The Baptist Church of North Manlius, (located in Sullivan,) was organized July 9, 1833, as the Baptist Church of Manlius and Sullivan, with twenty-four members, among whom were Rev. Allen Breed, Nelson Camp, Phineas Kinne, John Keller, Ezra Williams, Diadama Kinne, Mary Keller, Lucina Dewey, Adah Keller and Lydia Fyler. Meetings had been previously held as early as 1821. Their church edifice was built in 1853, at a cost of $2,100. The present number of members is seventy; the attendance at Sabbath School, sixty-five.

    The following have been the succession of pastors: Allen Breed, 1833-43; William Shapcott, 1843-44; W. H. Douglas, 1844-45; Revs. Shute and Swan, (supplies,) 1845-49; Henry Brown, 1849-54; Orrin Beckwith, 1854-57; Butler Morley, 1857-59; J. P. Ash, 1859-62; A. Lindsay, 1862-65; W. C. Phillips, 1865-68; G. W. Sears, 1868-70; Thomas Davis, 1871-73; W. L. Goodspeed, 1873-76; William Sharpe, the present pastor, who commenced his labors in 1877.


    Bridgeport is located on the Chittenango creek about two miles from Oneida Lake, and contains two hotels, (one kept by Joseph Lewis, built in 1873, on the site of one burned in 1867; and the other by Udell Mayo, who commenced the spring of 1880, succeeding John Nichols;) three blacksmith shops; four stores, kept by Dunham & Sharpe, Orson Terpenny, Chas. Billington & Bro., (general stores,) and Horace Draper, (hardware store and tinshop,) and a grist-mill. The postmaster is A. P. Briggs, who has held the office since the spring of 1879, and succeeded Geo. Rector.

    There are two physicians in the place, Dr. David Dunham and David Dunham, Jr.

    The Bridgeport Mills are run by the Snyder Bros. (W. J. and C. D.,) who bought the mills in 1879 of Oney Sayles, who had run them about four years. The mills contain two runs of stones which are propelled by water power, and do only custom work.

    Near Bridgeport are located two cheese factories. The Lakewood factory, situated two miles east of Bridgeport, is owned by L. W. Sayles, who has been the proprietor since 1875, having purchased the property of James Vrooman who moved the building to its present location and first used it as a cheese factory about 1868. This factory uses the milk of about 175 cows. The Bridgeport factory is situated about one-fourth mile south of Bridgeport and is owned by John Durst, who has had it about two years. The first proprietor was a Mr. Heth, who was succeeded by Mr. Hart, Ozias Osborne and Mr. Durst. It uses the milk of about 200 cows.

    The Bridgeport Baptist Church was organized at a meeting held in the school house in Bridgeport, Feb. 8, 1845, with the following members: Henry Shute, Jr., John Newton, H. M. Shute, Maria Palmer, Lovisa G. Shute. Rachael Newton, Celestia Shute, I. D. Wheat, Justus H. Palmer, Harriet Rich, Lovisa Shute and Cornelia I. Newton. Henry Shute was the first pastor.

    In 1847 a resolution appears on the records to sustain meetings every Sunday in "our meeting house."

    April 15, 1848, Rev. David Pease commenced his pastorate which ended March 5, 1849. Mr. Shute succeeded him followed by C. R. Negus, who was ordained in 1851. From 1853 till 1861, the church did not hold regular meetings, but at a special meeting held Jan. 24, 1861, at which only two of the original members were present, a reorganization of the society was effected and Rev. M. Hayden was called to the pastorate, who was succeeded by Revs. D. D. Lowell, 1868-'72, and B. F. Leipsner, 1872-'73. In 1874, Rev. S. Gardner commenced a pastorate that lasted five years. Sept. 1st, 1879, James Benedict, a student from Hamilton, commenced preaching for them, and still supplies the pulpit. The membership of the church is about 40, and of the Sunday School is about 75.

    The Methodist Episcopal Society in Bridgeport.---Of the early history of this society little is known as the records have not been preserved, and most, if not all of the first members are either dead or distant. There was a society here as early as 1835. It then belonged to the Old North Manlius Circuit, and included what was called the East Settlement. Rev. Anson Tuller was pastor. In 1836 Rev. Anson Tuller was re-appointed and Rev. Moses Lyon, junior preacher. For a number of years Bridgeport society was attached to Cicero circuit. Rev. Allen H. Tilton was the first pastor on the Cicero circuit and Rev. Browning Nichols, Rev. Joseph Smedley, Rev. Hiram Nichols and Loren L. Adkins, also preached at Bridgeport occasionally, but the society became very small and for a time did not sustain any pastor. In the spring of 1866, the people became anxious to have preaching and desired a Methodist minister. This included not only the few Methodists who had survived, but the entire community. Rev. Silas Ball about this time was appointed at Bridgeport and remained but one year. In 1867 Rev. Gideon P. Jones was pastor. In the spring of 1868, Rev. Moses Lyon was appointed to Bridgeport and remained three years.

    The First Methodist Episcopal Society of Bridgeport, was legally organized in the fall of 1868, and the following persons were the first trustees: Jefferson Hall, Oney Sayles, Sr., Asa Ames, Daniel Marvin, James S. Prosser, Ozias Osborn, B. D. Auchmoody, J. S. Barnard, Richard Brown. During the fall and winter a subscription was circulated and preparations were made for building. In the fall of 1869, the church was finished and the dedication sermon was preached by Rev. B. I. Ives, assisted by Rev. A. J. Phelps, presiding elder of the district. The house, bell and lot, cost about $7,000.00. When Rev. Silas Ball was pastor the society at Cicero Center was in Bridgeport charge. This continued for a number of years. It then went to Cicero charge and the class at the Hayes School house was attached to Bridgeport charge. In the spring of 1871, Rev. E. A. Peck was pastor. In 1872, Rev. T. F. Clark was pastor. In 1873, Rev. Mr. Mathison was pastor. He did not fill out the year and Rev. Selah Stocking was engaged to supply the pulpit until Conference. In the fall of 1874 Rev. W. M. Henry was appointed the pastor and remained two years.

    In the fall of 1876, Rev. Mr. Lyon came and was re-appointed in 1877, and again in 1878. In the fall of 1879, Rev. E. B. Gearhart, became the pastor whose first year will not close until the 6th of Oct., 1880. There are about one hundred members in the church besides some twenty-five who are on probation. Sunday School numbers about one hundred.


    Lakeport is a small post village situated five miles east of Bridgeport, and contains a saw-mill, two hotels, one store, one blacksmith shop, and a shoe shop.

    The saw-mill was built about 1850 by W. H. Snedeker, and purchased by P. W. Tupper in 1858, who still operates it. It contains one circular saw and a planer which are propelled by steam power. The Larkin House was built about 1850, and first called the Lakeport House. It has since been re-modeled and enlarged to about twice the original size. David Larkin is the present proprietor. The Avon House was built in 1877 by John Dempsey, who still owns it, and who occupied it one year. Reuben Coss is at present occupying the house under lease. Edwin C. Green, merchant and postmaster, has been in business about fifteen years, and succeeded a Mr. Edwards. Perry Edwards built the store building about 1855 and occupied it about four years, and was followed by Nat Warner. Mr. Green has been postmaster since September, 1867, and succeeded David Larkin, who held the office several years previously. A half mile west of Lakeport is situated the Spencer Brook Cheese Factory, Edward F. Sternberg, proprietor, who has occupied the factory eight years. John K. Gifford built the factory about 1868. The factory uses the milk of about 250 cows.

    Reuben Spencer, from Connecticut, was one of the first settlers in this region and purchased an extensive tract of land through which ran Spencer Brook. He built on this brook the first saw-mill in this vicinity. He also built and operated the saw-mill which was torn down some ten years since and which stood next to the cheese factory. In this mill he used to operate a turning lathe, upon which he turned the small wooden wheels used upon the salt-vat covers in Syracuse.

    William R. Spencer, a son of Reuben's, still lives here.

    Reuben Bushnell was an early settler east of here, and came in February, 1811, from New Durham, Greene county, formerly from Connecticut, and settled on the place now occupied by Franklin Bushnell. William Bushnell, another son, who was born March 31, 1811, is now living across the road from the homestead.

    Two miles east of Lakeport on the shore road is located The First Congregational Church of Oneida Lake embracing in its territory the north-west portion of the town of Lenox and the north-east part of Sullivan.

    In the month of February, 1846, at the request of persons living in the neighborhood, Rev. Josiah Jerome Ward a member of the Onondaga Presbytery came into this field and in the hope of gathering into one fold the disciples of Christ engaged in labor one year. A religious society was formed Aug. 24, 1846 with the following named constituent members: Thomas Chasmer, Henry Miller, J. S. Hubbard, James C. Bush, Timothy Chapman, Elisha Ely, Lemuel Williams, Joseph Henderson, Mary Bushnell, Ann Chasmer, Sebre Olcott, Caroline Miller, Julia Hart, Hannah E. Bush, Charlotte Chapman, Chloe Kelsey, Betsey Williams, Sarah Henderson and Eunice Miller.

    From 1846 to 1851, Rev. Josiah J. Ward labored successfully with them. He was followed by Revs. James C. Smith 1853-'56; Geo. Ritchie 1856-'58; Dwight Scovel, temporary supply, 1858-'59; ordained as pastor Aug. 2, 1859, and who closed his labors Nov., 1861; P. O. Powers commenced May 4, 1862 to April 3, 1864; Geo. D. Horton June 5, 1864 to April, 1867. For the next four years after Mr. Horton left, the society enjoyed the services of a stated supply with the Methodists. In the spring of 1871, Rev. Mr. Williston occupied the pulpit and remained one year. From this time until 1875 the pulpit was vacant at which date Chas. M. McCarthy accepted the pastorate for one year preaching half the time at Oneida Valley. He was succeeded by Mr. Gaston, a student from the Auburn Theological Seminary, who supplied them six months. Rev. W. S. Franklin commenced with them in June, 1878. Wm. A. Wurts the present pastor began on this charge in 1879 and preaches every Sunday afternoon supplying the church at the valley in the morning.

    Their church edifice was erected about 1824, but was in an unfinished condition until 1846. In 1876 it was repaired in a very neat and substantial manner.

    "The Union Congregational Society in the north part of Lenox and Sullivan" was organized March 30, 1824, and kept up its organization until 1842 or a little later when owing to dissensions in the church and a weak state of feeling generally the society was discontinued. The property was afterwards transferred to the society organized in 1846.

    WAR OF THE REBELLION.---The record of the legislative action of this town during this eventful period is very meagre and does not adequately portray the honorable part it took therein. The first is the record of a special meeting held at the hotel of S. C. Dixon Aug. 10, 1864, when it was decided by a vote of 176 to 83 to pay to every person who had volunteered or should thereafter volunteer, or who had furnished or should thereafter furnish a substitute credited on the quota of the town under the call for 500,000 men, a town bounty of $300, in addition to the county bounty. The Board of Town Auditors met Aug. 20, 1864, and resolved to issue a sufficient number of bonds in denominations of $300, to be signed by a Justice and the Town Clerk and bear interest till due, to fill that quota. At a special meeting held at the same place Sept. 15, 1864, it was decided by a vote of 371 to 10 to increase that bounty to $500; and it was provided that in no case should the person furnishing a substitute receive more in bounties than the sum paid by him, and not to exceed $1,000. Aug. 16, 1864, the Board of Town Auditors resolved to issue for this purpose bonds of $200 each, payable to the War Loan Committee and signed by a Justice of the Peace and Town Clerk, bearing interest to the time when due, and payable at the option of the holder either April 1, 1865, or April 1, 1866.

    March 3, 1865, a settlement was made with the Supervisor, D. D. Walrath, who had then paid in principal and interest of the bonds of the town for war purposes, $18,441.86, leaving in the bank to be used in the payment of bonds, $25,597.23. In settling with Supervisor Timothy S. Brown, March 3, 1866, he was found to have received State bonds amounting to $38,556.49, making a total of $82,595.58.

    Sullivan furnished in aid of the prosecution of the war 392 men; of whom 45 were natives, and 308 residents of the town. They enlisted 1 for nine months, 41 for one year, 20 for two years, 307 for three years, 1 for five years and 1 for life. Among the number were 3 captains, 5 1st lieutenants, 2 2d lieutenants, 1 quarter-master-sergeant and 6 sergeants.

Ruel Page

    The subject of this brief memoir was born in Connecticut the 2d of September, 1810. He was a son of Daniel and Lucinda (Frost) Page, natives also of New England. These parents came to Madison county and settled in the town of Cazenovia in 1815. The father, at the time of his death, was living in the town of Fenner with his son James H., and was 92 years old. The mother died about 1860, aged nearly 70 years. They had nine children and all grew up and settled in Madison county except the youngest, (Hannah,) who is now living in Michigan. Their names were as follows: Electa, (now dead,) Sarah, (now dead,) Ruel, Benjamin, Lydia A., Chauncey, Erastus, James H. and Hannah. Ruel lived at home with his folks until he was 13 years old, attending school winters and working on the farm summers, and after that age he worked out by the month, and his wages were willingly devoted, as were also the wages of his brother Benjamin, to the purchase of a home for his parents, until he was twenty-one.

    When he reached his majority he went to Jamesville, Onondaga county, N. Y., and worked three years with George Tibbitts and learned the carpenter and joiner's trade. He engaged for four years, but his last year's time he purchased of Mr. Tibbitts and built a house for John Stevens, at Eagle village. He worked at his trade for about fifteen years. He lived in Eagle village, in the town of Manlius, Onondaga county, twelve years, and then came to the town of Sullivan in 1849 and settled where his widow now resides. He purchased 110 acres. He added to his first purchase from time to time until he owned nearly three hundred acres in the immediate vicinity, and here he followed farming exclusively until he died, July 17, 1878.

    February 3, 1836, Mr. Page was united in marriage with Rosemond, daughter of Ichabod and Lydia (Potter) Fillmore, of the town of Manlius, Onondaga county, N. Y. She was born May 4, 1816, in Manlius. The fruits of this union were five children, namely: Wm. H., born in Manlius, Jan. 18, 1837, married Sophia Adams, of the town of Lenox, Madison county; Ann J., born in Manlius, Sept. 16, 1839, married John Q. Adams, of Chittenango; Horace B., born in Sullivan, May 1, 1849, married Hattie Nourse, of Chittenango Falls; Hattie E., born in the town of Sullivan, Feb. 20, 1854, married Charles M. Hall, of Chittenango; and Alfred E. born in Sullivan, Nov. 10, 1860. The death of Mr. Page was the result of an accident which occurred on the 10th of July. He was trying, during a terrible storm, to close his barn doors, when one of them was blown against him with great violence, inflicting injuries from which he died on the 17th, as above stated. By this sad accident the town of Sullivan lost an active, worthy, and prominent citizen. He was a man of indomitable industry and perseverance. Left to his own resources when young, by his irrepressible energy, frugality, sterling judgment and excellent management he acquired a competency. He was a man of thrift; whatever he did was well done. He was enterprising and public spirited. The temperance reform and all benevolent enterprises possessed in Mr. Page an earnest friend and supporter.

    For many years he was a trustee of the Methodist society of Chittenango, and contributed liberally of his means towards the support of the church. His death was deeply lamented, for "when a good man dies the people mourn." His memory, fragrant and precious, is cherished by a fond family and a large circle of appreciative friends.

1 - Spofford's Gazetteer of 1824, says a plaster bed was opened in June, 1810.
2 - H. Child's Gazetteer and Directory of Madison County, 1868-'9.
3 - See page 504.
4 - The following is the comparative population of the several towns in Madison county, as shown by the censuses of 1870 and 1880:--


5 - Reuben S. Carpenter was elected justice at the annual election in 1880, and takes his office in January, 1881.
6 - Census of 1880.
7 - Dec. 5, 1870, the village was re-incorporated under the general law for the incorporation of villages, passed April 20, 1870, making the office of President an elective one and that of Clerk an appointive one; and in conformity to that law the number of trustees was reduced from five to three. In January, 1874, a law was passed requiring village trustees to be so elected that one or more members having one or more years' experience should remain on the Board. The first election under that Act was held March 16, 1875.
8 - He did not accept, and Chauncey Hatch was elected in his stead Dec. 10, 1842, Asahel Beckwith was elected Feb. 24, 1843, and Chauncey Hatch was re-elected March 23, 1843, he and Beckwith having previously declined.
9 - About this time there were some eleven stores it, Chittenango, all doing a good business. It is a noteworthy fact that Messrs. Sims & Bates, who were of the number, were the only ones who replenished their stock that rear. In addition to the Cobbs, Beecher & Norton, Beecher & Lawrence, Peter and Harrison Groesbeck and Reuben Hawley failed within some twelve months about that time.
10 - See page 555 of this work.
11 - For a history of the Press of Madison County see page 516 of this work.
12 - This name was designated by O. W. Sturdevant, School Commissioner of the 2d District of Madison county, Aug. 28, 1871.
13 - He accepted the principalship and entered upon its ditties, but at the close of the first day in school was attacked by a serious illness which compelled him to vacate the position.
14 - Hotchkins' History of Western New York.
Transcribed by Tim Stowell
Mar, 2015
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